Japanese 101

now 
今 (ima)


later 
後で (atode)
before 
前に (mae ni)
before ___ 
___ の前に ( ___ no mae ni)
morning 
朝 (asa)
afternoon 
午後 (gogo)
evening 
夕方 (yūgata)
night 
夜 (yoru)

Clock

For clock times, you will be understood if you simply substitute gozen 午前 for "AM" and gogo 午後 for PM, although other time qualifiers like 朝 asa for morning and 夜 yoru for night may be more natural. The 24-hour clock is also commonly used in official contexts such as train schedules.


six o'clock AM 
朝6時 (asa rokuji)
nine o'clock AM 
午前9時 (gozen kuji)
noon 
正午 (shōgo)
one o'clock PM 
午後1時 (gogo ichiji.)
two o'clock PM 
午後2時 (gogo niji)
midnight 
夜12時 (yoru jūniji)

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 分 (fun or pun)


_____ hour(s) 
_____ 時間 (jikan)
_____ day(s) 
_____ 日 (nichi)
_____ week(s) 
_____ 週間 (shūkan)
_____ month(s) 
_____ ヶ月 (kagetsu)
_____ year(s) 
_____ 年 (nen)

Days

today 
今日(kyō)


yesterday 
昨日(kinō)
tomorrow 
明日(ashita)
this week 
今週(konshū)
last week 
先週(senshū)
next week 
来週(raishū)
Sunday 
日曜日 (nichiyōbi)
Monday 
月曜日 (getsuyōbi)
Tuesday 
火曜日 (kayōbi)
Wednesday 
水曜日 (suiyōbi)
Thursday 
木曜日 (mokuyōbi)
Friday 
金曜日 (kin'yōbi)
Saturday 
土曜日 (doyōbi)

Days of the Month

The 1st through the 10th of the month have special names:


First day of the month 
1日 (tsuitachi)


Second day of the month 
2日 (futsuka)
Third day of the month 
3日 (mikka)
Fourth day of the month 
4日 (yokka)
Fifth day of the month 
5日 (itsuka)
Sixth day of the month 
6日 (muika)
Seventh day of the month 
7日 (nanoka)
Eighth day of the month 
8日 (yōka)
Ninth day of the month 
9日 (kokonoka)
Tenth day of the month 
10日 (tōka)


The other days of the month are more orderly, just add the suffix -nichi to the ordinal number. Note that 14, 20, and 24 deviate from this pattern.


Eleventh day of the month 
11日 (jūichinichi)
Fourteenth day of the month 
14日 (jūyokka)
Twentieth day of the month 
20日 (hatsuka)
Twenty-fourth day of the month 
24日 (nijūyokka)

Months

Months are very orderly in Japanese, just add the suffix -gatsu to the ordinal number.


January 
1月 (ichigatsu)
February 
2月 (nigatsu)
March 
3月 (sangatsu)
April 
4月 (shigatsu)
May 
5月 (gogatsu)
June 
6月 (rokugatsu)
July 
7月 (shichigatsu)
August 
8月 (hachigatsu)
September 
9月 (kugatsu)
October 
10月 (jūgatsu)
November 
11月 (jūichigatsu)
December 
12月 (jūnigatsu)

Writing

Dates are written in year/month/day (day of week) format, with markers:

2006年3月21日(火)


Note that Imperial era years, based on the name and duration of the current Emperor's reign, are also frequently used. 2006 in the Gregorian calendar corresponds to Heisei 18 (平成18年), which may be abbreviated as "H18". Dates like "18/03/24" (March 24, Heisei 18) are also occasionally seen.

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